Laboratory medicine is very diverse and is divided into specialties and sub-specialties.

Anatomic Pathology Histopathology
Electron Microscopy
Clinical Pathology Clinical Microbiology Bacteriology
Clinical Chemistry Instrumental analysis of blood components, Enzymology, Toxicology and Endocrinology
Hematology Automated and manual analysis of blood cells: coagulation and blood bank
Genetics/Cytogenetics DNA and Molecular Diagnostics
Reproductive Biology Semen analysis, sperm bank and assisted reproductive technologies

LabFlorida is mostly a Clinical Pathology Lab, and most of our testing is in the following specialties:

  • Microbiology. We work with all clinical specimen, including blood, urine, feces, swabs, sputum, cerebrospinal fluid, synovial fluid, as well as possible infected tissue. The work here is mainly concerned with cultures, to look for suspected pathogens which, if found, are further identified based on biochemical tests. Also, sensitivity testing is carried out to determine whether the pathogen is sensitive or resistant to a suggested medicine. Results are reported with the identified organism(s) and the type and amount of drug(s) that should be prescribed for the patient.
  • Parasitology is a microbiology unit that investigates parasites. The most frequently encountered specimen here is feces. However, blood, urine, sputum, and other samples may also contain parasites.
  • Virology is concerned with identification of viruses in specimens such as blood, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid.
  • Hematology/Cytology works with whole blood to do full blood counts, and blood films as well as many other specialized tests.
  • Coagulation requires citrated blood samples to analyze blood clotting times and coagulation factors.
  • Clinical Biochemistry usually receives serum or plasma to measure base compounds in the body. We test the serum for chemicals present in blood. These include a wide array of substances, such as electrolytes, lipids, blood sugar, enzymes, and hormones. Examples: Calcium level test, HbA1c, Fecal occult blood tests (FOBT).
  • Toxicology mainly tests urine and blood for pharmaceutical and recreational drugs, as well as their interactions.
  • Immunology/Serology uses the concept of antigen-antibody interaction to indicate the
    presence or level of a protein. Examples: Immunoassay test for troponin, Antibiotic susceptibility tests, Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) tests, HIV antibody tests, Tumor marker tests.
  • Urinalysis tests urine for many analytes.
  • Histopathology processes solid tissue removed from the body (biopsies) for evaluation at the microscopic level.
  • Cytopathology examines smears of cells from all over the body for evidence of inflammation, cancer, and other conditions.
  • Electron microscopy prepares specimens and takes micrographs of very fine details by means of TEM and SEM.
  • Genetics and Cytogenetics performs DNA or RNA analysis and complex molecular diagnostics. Molecular tests may indicate the presence of disease or one’s susceptibility to disease.

Tests results are used by doctors to screen for a disease or to provide early disease identification; to diagnose a disease; to provide prognostic information by assessing the degree of disease progression or severity; to assist in selecting drugs or targeting medical treatment; and to monitor the course of a disease or condition.

Learn about types of clinical labs in the U.S. >